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A new oxygen modification cyclooctaoxygen binds to nucleic acids as sodium crown complex
- Kesel, Andreas J., Day, Craig W., Montero, Catherine M., Schinazi, Raymond F.
- Biochimica et biophysica acta 2016 v.1860 no.4 pp. 785-794
- RNA, catalase, catalytic activity, cattle, chromatin, cytidine, cytosine, epigenetics, eukaryotic cells, evolution, genes, interphase, mice, mitosis, models, oxygen, phosphates, selenites, selenium, single-stranded DNA, sodium, spermine, thin layer chromatography
- Oxygen exists in two gaseous and six solid allotropic modifications. An additional allotropic modification of oxygen, the cyclooctaoxygen, was predicted to exist in 1990.Cyclooctaoxygen sodium was synthesized in vitro from atmospheric oxygen, or catalase effect-generated oxygen, under catalysis of cytosine nucleosides and either ninhydrin or eukaryotic low-molecular weight RNA. Thin-layer chromatographic mobility shift assays were applied on specific nucleic acids and the cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex.We report the first synthesis and characterization of cyclooctaoxygen as its sodium crown complex, isolated in the form of three cytosine nucleoside hydrochloride complexes. The cationic cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex is shown to bind to nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), to associate with single-stranded DNA and spermine phosphate, and to be essentially non-toxic to cultured mammalian cells at 0.1–1.0mM concentration.We postulate that cyclooctaoxygen is formed in most eukaryotic cells in vivo from dihydrogen peroxide in a catalase reaction catalyzed by cytidine and RNA. A molecular biological model is deduced for a first epigenetic shell of eukaryotic in vivo DNA. This model incorporates an epigenetic explanation for the interactions of the essential micronutrient selenium (as selenite) with eukaryotic in vivo DNA.Since the sperminium phosphate/cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex is calculated to cover the active regions (2.6%) of bovine lymphocyte interphase genome, and 12.4% of murine enterocyte mitotic chromatin, we propose that the sperminium phosphate/cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex coverage of nucleic acids is essential to eukaryotic gene regulation and promoted proto-eukaryotic evolution.