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The impact of red cabbage fermentation on bioavailability of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of human plasma
- Wiczkowski, Wieslaw, Szawara-Nowak, Dorota, Romaszko, Jerzy
- Food chemistry 2016 v.190 pp. 730-740
- anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, bioavailability, blood, cabbage, cross-over studies, cyanidin, fermentation, humans, metabolites, urine, volunteers
- The effect of red cabbage fermentation on anthocyanin bioavailability and plasma antioxidant capacity in humans was studied. In a randomized crossover study, 13 volunteers consumed fresh and fermented red cabbage. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after consumption. Analyses of anthocyanins by HPLC–MS/MS and plasma antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminescence assay were conducted. Red cabbage products contained 20 different nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins with the main structure of cyanidin triglucosides. The anthocyanins ingested were present in physiological fluids in form of 18 native anthocyanins and 12 metabolites (methylated, glucuronided, sulfated). Among cyanidin metabolites identified, methylated forms were predominant. Bioavailability of anthocyanin from fresh red cabbage was over 10% higher than from fermented red cabbage. Upon fresh cabbage consumption, volunteers plasma showed higher antioxidant capacity than after fermented cabbage intake. The study has shown that fermentation process affects red cabbage anthocyanins bioavailability and human plasma antioxidant capacity.