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Mitochondrial ascorbate–glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening

López-Vidal, O., Camejo, D., Rivera-Cabrera, F., Konigsberg, M., Villa-Hernández, J.M., Mendoza-Espinoza, J.A., Pérez-Flores, L.J., Sevilla, F., Jiménez, A., Díaz de León-Sánchez, F.
Food chemistry 2016 v.194 pp. 1064-1072
Solanum lycopersicum, antioxidants, biochemical pathways, energy, enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, mitochondria, post-translational modification, proteins, proteomics, ripening, tissues, tomatoes
In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate–glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate–glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation.