Main content area

National reduction in porcine circovirus type 2 prevalence following introduction of vaccination

Dvorak, Cheryl M.T., Yang, Yan, Haley, Charles, Sharma, Nikita, Murtaugh, Michael P.
Veterinary microbiology 2016 v.189 pp. 86-90
National Animal Health Monitoring System, Porcine circovirus, Porcine circovirus-2, antibodies, circular DNA, herds, pathogens, pork industry, prevalence, swine, vaccination, vaccines, viral load, viremia, viruses, wasting syndrome, United States
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a small, single-stranded circular DNA virus and the causative agent of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), was first observed in the mid-1990s in pigs with a post-weaning wasting disease. In 2006 the number of PCVAD cases greatly increased, marking it as an important viral pathogen for the United States (US) swine industry. PCV2 vaccines were introduced to the US in 2006 in response to widespread outbreaks of PCVAD. These vaccines were effective in preventing disease, but did not eliminate virus from the animals. In 2006, prior to vaccine use, a study of PCV2 prevalence in pig herds across the US was performed in conjunction with the US National Animal Health Monitoring System. In 2012, 6 years after widespread PCV2 vaccination, this study was repeated. Since the introduction of PCV2 vaccines in 2006, viral presence and viral loads have greatly decreased, and a genotypic shift dominated by PCV2b has occurred. Antibody levels have decreased in the pig population, but approximately 95% of sites continue to be antibody-positive. Widespread vaccination has controlled PCVAD and decreased PCV2 prevalence to the point that viremia is not detected on many sites. Thus, continued vaccination may lead to PCV2 elimination in the national herd over time.