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The pathogenicity and host adaptation of livestock-associated MRSA CC398

Ballhausen, Britta, Kriegeskorte, André, van Alen, Sarah, Jung, Philipp, Köck, Robin, Peters, Georg, Bischoff, Markus, Becker, Karsten
Veterinary microbiology 2017 v.200 pp. 39-45
adhesion, antibiotic resistance, equipment, health services, hospitals, humans, interspersed repetitive sequences, livestock breeding, methicillin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, swine, toxins, virulence
The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 in livestock and their transmission to humans followed by their introduction into hospitals led to a significant burden for the human healthcare system, especially in regions with a high density of livestock breeding. The CC398 lineage made two host changes in its evolutionary history: From humans to pigs and other livestock-associated animals and back to the human host. These adaptation processes are mirrored by changes of the equipment with virulence factors necessary for successful host change. Here, we consider these factors and their special role during human colonization and infection. Host adaptation of S. aureus CC398 is accompanied by genetic changes that are mainly driven by exchanges of mobile genetic elements. So far, it is not clear, which virulence or adhesion factors are important for S. aureus CC398 in host interaction. Among human and animal-derived MRSA CC398 virulence factors, e.g. (entero-) toxins, were rarely found. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive overview on the emerging S. aureus lineage CC398 by summarizing current knowledge from microbiological, molecular and cellular interaction studies in relation to clinical and epidemiological perspectives.