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Starch and starch derivatives in gluten-free systems – A review

Witczak, Mariusz, Ziobro, Rafał, Juszczak, Lesław, Korus, Jarosław
Journal of cereal science 2016 v.67 pp. 46-57
additives, allergens, biopolymers, consumer acceptance, diet, flour, gluten, gluten-free foods, hydrocolloids, ingredients, nutrients, nutritive value, raw materials, sensory properties, stabilizers, starch, texture, traditional foods, wheat
A growing demand for gluten-free products is caused by an increasing number of diagnosed celiacs, but also by a trend to eliminate any potentially allergenic proteins in a diet. The removal of gluten from food products traditionally based on wheat, has a significant impact on their structure and texture. It is not an easy task to adjust a recipe for gluten-free products, which would give a product with sensory attributes, nutritional value and consumer acceptance comparable to traditional food. The main raw materials involved in such formulations are starches and flours of various botanical origin in which starch is the main component. Their properties could be additionally modified by appropriate structure- and texture-forming ingredients or additives, including various hydrocolloids, processing aids and stabilizers, as well as nutrients. The role of starch in such systems is always important, as its proper choice and treatment could significantly affect properties of the final product. This literature review describes the role of starch as a major ingredient of gluten-free food products. It presents starch molecular and physical properties, shows differences between various types of this biopolymer and their influence on product characteristics.