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Natural plant products inhibits growth and alters the swarming motility, biofilm formation, and expression of virulence genes in enteroaggregative and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

García-Heredia, Alam, García, Santos, Merino-Mascorro, José Ángel, Feng, Peter, Heredia, Norma
Food microbiology 2016 v.59 pp. 124-132
Escherichia coli O157, Lippia graveolens, agar, antibacterial properties, bacterial motility, biofilm, carvacrol, citral, gene expression, genes, growth retardation, minimum inhibitory concentration, phenotype, plant products, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, virulence
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plant products on the growth, swarming motility, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 and a strain of O104:H4 serotype.Extracts of Lippia graveolens and Haematoxylon brassiletto, and carvacrol, brazilin were tested by an antimicrobial microdilution method using citral and rifaximin as controls. All products showed bactericidal activity with minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 8.1 mg/ml. Swarming motility was determined in soft LB agar. Most compounds reduced swarming motility by 7%–100%; except carvacrol which promoted motility in two strains. Biofilm formation studies were done in microtiter plates. Rifaximin inhibited growth and reduced biofilm formation, but various concentrations of other compounds actually induced biofilm formation. Real time PCR showed that most compounds decreased stx2 expression. The expression of pic and rpoS in E. coli 042 were suppressed but in E. coli O104:H4 they varied depending on compounds.In conclusion, these extracts affect E. coli growth, swarming motility and virulence gene expression. Although these compounds were bactericidal for pathogenic E. coli, sublethal concentrations had varied effects on phenotypic and genotypic traits, and some increased virulence gene expression.