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Pre-mixing and masterbatch approaches for reinforcing poly(vinyl acetate) with cellulose based fillers
- Nicharat, Apiradee, Sapkota, Janak, Foster, E. Johan
- Industrial crops and products 2016 v.93 pp. 244-250
- acetates, acid hydrolysis, cellulose, cotton, milling, nanocrystals, polyvinyl acetate, solvents
- Milling of microcrystalline cellulose (gMCC) and poly(vinyl acetate) (gPVAc) was performed, and the milled samples were pre-mixed prior to melt-mixing. Ground samples that were pre- and subsequently melt-mixed (gPVAc/gMCC) showed similar reinforcement (modulus of ∼3GPa at 25°C, ∼9MPa at 90°C) compared to the directly mixed composites containing cellulose nanocrystals isolated by acid hydrolysis from cotton (PVAc/CNC, modulus of ∼3GPa at 25°C and ∼10MPa at 90°C). Highly concentrated masterbatches (up to 60wt% of gMCC) are shown for the first time with cellulosic filler. These additive concentrates can be first prepared using a solution casting approach, aiding in efficient transport, and then diluted by melt-mixing when needed. Using DMF and water as solvents for preparation, melt-processing schemes that are easier to scale-up and exploit industrially were evaluated in this work.