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Cell-wall disruption and lipid/astaxanthin extraction from microalgae: Chlorella and Haematococcus

Kim, Dong-Yeon, Vijayan, Durairaj, Praveenkumar, Ramasamy, Han, Jong-In, Lee, Kyubock, Park, Ji-Yeon, Chang, Won-Seok, Lee, Jin-Suk, Oh, You-Kwan
Bioresource technology 2016 v.199 pp. 300-310
Chlorella, Haematococcus, astaxanthin, biofuels, biomass, biorefining, cell walls, energy, functional foods, lipids, microalgae, solvents, toxicity
Recently, biofuels and nutraceuticals produced from microalgae have emerged as major interests, resulting in intensive research of the microalgal biorefinery process. In this paper, recent developments in cell-wall disruption and extraction methods are reviewed, focusing on lipid and astaxanthin production from the biotechnologically important microalgae Chlorella and Haematococcus, respectively. As a common, critical bottleneck for recovery of intracellular components such as lipid and astaxanthin from these microalgae, the composition and structure of rigid, thick cell-walls were analyzed. Various chemical, physical, physico-chemical, and biological methods applied for cell-wall breakage and lipid/astaxanthin extraction from Chlorella and Haematococcus are discussed in detail and compared based on efficiency, energy consumption, type and dosage of solvent, biomass concentration and status (wet/dried), toxicity, scalability, and synergistic combinations. This report could serve as a useful guide to the implementation of practical downstream processes for recovery of valuable products from microalgae including Chlorella and Haematococcus.