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Improving thermal stability of hydrolysed whey protein-based infant formula emulsions by protein–carbohydrate conjugation
- Drapala, Kamil P., Auty, Mark A.E., Mulvihill, Daniel M., O'Mahony, James A.
- Food research international 2016 v.88 pp. 42-51
- confocal laser scanning microscopy, droplets, emulsions, flocculation, heat, heat stability, heat treatment, hydrolysis, infant formulas, ingredients, maltodextrins, manufacturing, microstructure, oils, protein hydrolysates, viscosity, whey, whey protein isolate
- Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) ingredients are commonly used in the manufacture of partially-hydrolysed infant formulae. The heat stability of these emulsion-based formulae is often poor, compared with those made using intact whey protein. The objective of this study was to improve the heat stability of WPH-based emulsions by conjugation of WPH with maltodextrin (MD) through wet heating. Emulsions stabilised by different protein ingredients, whey protein isolate (WPIE), whey protein hydrolysate (WPHE), heated WPH (WPH-HE), and WPH conjugated with MD (WPH-CE) were prepared and heat treated at 75°C, 95°C or 100°C for 15min. Changes in viscosity, fat globule size distribution (FGSD) and microstructure, evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), were used to monitor the effects of hydrolysis, pre-heating and conjugation on the heat stability of the emulsions. Heat stability increased in the order WPHE<WPIE<<WPH-HE<<<WPH-CE; emulsions WPHE, WPIE and WPH-HE destabilised on heating at 75°C, 95°C or 100°C, respectively. Flocculation and coalescence of oil droplets were mediated by protein aggregation (as evidenced by CLSM) on heat treatment of WPH-HE emulsion at 100°C, while no changes in FGSD or microstructure were observed in WPH-CE emulsion on heat treatment at 100°C, demonstrating the excellent thermal stability of emulsions prepared with the conjugated WPH ingredient, due principally to increased steric stabilisation as a result of conjugation.