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Biopolymer nanovehicles for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: Structure–functionality relationships

Semenova, Maria G., Antipova, Anna S., Zelikina, Darya V., Martirosova, Elena I., Plashchina, Irina G., Palmina, Nadezda P., Binyukov, Vladimir I., Bogdanova, Natalia G., Kasparov, Valerii V., Shumilina, Elena A., Ozerova, Natalia S.
Food research international 2016 v.88 pp. 70-78
atomic force microscopy, biopolymers, electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrophoresis, encapsulation, functional foods, glucose, human health, hydrodynamics, light scattering, lysophosphatidylcholine, micelles, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, oxidation, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sodium, solubility, thermodynamics, zeta potential
Design of stimuli-sensitive (i.e., smart) nano-sized delivery systems for nutraceuticals, having both a nutritional and pharmaceutical value, is very important for the formulation of novel functional food. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are among the most needed nutraceuticals for the maintenance of good health. It is medically proven that in order to get the best effect on the human health the weight ratio of ω−6/ω−3 PUFAs should be within the range between 1/1 and 5/1. Thus, our work was focused on the molecular design of the delivery systems based on the nano-sized complexes formed between covalent conjugate (sodium caseinate+maltodextrin (a dextrose equivalent=2)) and the combinations of polyunsaturated lipids, which are mutually complementary in the ω−6 and ω−3 PUFAs content: α-linolenic (ALA)+linoleic (LA) acids; liposomes of soy phosphatidylcholine (PC)+ALA; and micelles of soy lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)+ALA. For such complex particles the high extent (>95%) of encapsulation of these all combinations of lipids by the conjugate was found along with both the high protection of the lipids against oxidation and their high solubility in an aqueous medium. To gain a better insight into such functionality of the complex particles a number of their structural (the weight-averaged molar weight, Mw; the radius of gyration, RG; the hydrodynamic radius, Rh; the architecture; the volume; the density; the ζ-potential; the microviscosity of both the bilayers of PC liposomes and LPC micelles), and thermodynamic (the osmotic second virial coefficient, A2, reflecting the nature and intensity of both the complex-complex and complex-solvent pair interactions) parameters were measured by a combination of such basic physico-chemical methods as static and dynamic multiangle laser light scattering, particle electrophoresis, atomic-force microscopy and electron spin resonance spectroscopy.