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Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids

Feng, Lin, Chen, Yong-Po, Jiang, Wei-Dan, Liu, Yang, Jiang, Jun, Wu, Pei, Zhao, Juan, Kuang, Sheng-Yao, Tang, Ling, Tang, Wu-Neng, Zhang, Yong-An, Zhou, Xiao-Qiu
Fish & shellfish immunology 2016 v.48 pp. 79-93
Ctenopharyngodon idella, reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial peptides, genes, fish, mitogen-activated protein kinase, juveniles, glutathione, malondialdehyde, tight junctions, gene expression, interleukin-10, phospholipids, IKappaB kinase, transcription factor NF-kappa B, messenger RNA, superoxide dismutase, myosin light chain kinase, transforming growth factors, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, immune response, interleukin-1beta, lysozyme, diet, complement, acid phosphatase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, catalase, liver, zinc, glutathione peroxidase, gills, occludins
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) the lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, complement component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) mRNA expression; (2) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b; (3) the transcription abundance of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) genes. In conclusion, the positive effect of PL on gill health is associated with the improvement of the immunity, antioxidant status and tight junction barrier of fish gills. Finally, based on ACP activity, C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills, the optimal dietary PL level for juvenile grass carp (9.34–87.50 g) was estimated to be 3.62%, 4.30%, 3.91% and 3.86%, respectively.