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Dietary myo-inositol modulates immunity through antioxidant activity and the Nrf2 and E2F4/cyclin signalling factors in the head kidney and spleen following infection of juvenile fish with Aeromonas hydrophila

Jiang, Wei-Dan, Hu, Kai, Liu, Yang, Jiang, Jun, Wu, Pei, Zhao, Juan, Zhang, Yong-An, Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, Feng, Lin
Fish & shellfish immunology 2016 v.49 pp. 374-386
Aeromonas hydrophila, acid phosphatase, adverse effects, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, carp, catalase, complement, cyclins, diet, enzyme activity, freshwater, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, immunity, juveniles, kidneys, lysozyme, malondialdehyde, myo-inositol, pathogens, spleen, superoxide dismutase, transcription (genetics)
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary vitamin myo-inositol (MI), on the immunity and structural integrity of the head kidney and spleen following infection of fish with the major freshwater pathogen bacterial Aeromonas hydrophila. The results demonstrated for the first time that MI deficiency depressed the lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents in the head kidney and spleen compared with the optimal MI levels, indicating that MI deficiency decreased the immunity of these important fish immune organs. The depression in immunity due to MI deficiency was partially related to oxidative damage [indicated by increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents] that was in turn partially due to the decreased glutathione (GSH) content and the disturbances in antioxidant enzyme activities [total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, MnSOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)]. MI deficiency inhibited the antioxidant-related gene transcription [CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)] in the head kidney and spleen following infection of the fish with A. hydrophila. The oxidative damage due to MI deficiency also resulted in the inhibition of proliferation-associated signalling (cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E and E2F4). Thus, MI deficiency partially inhibited damage repair. Excessive MI exhibited negative effects that were similar to MI deficiency, whereas the optimal MI content reversed those indicators. These observations indicated that an MI deficiency or excess could cause depression of the immune system that might be partially related to oxidative damage, antioxidant disturbances, and the inhibition of the proliferation-associated signalling in the head kidney and spleen following infection of fish with A. hydrophila. Finally, the optimal MI levels were 660.7 (based on ACP) and 736.8 mg kg−1 diet (based on MDA) in the head kidney and 770.5 (based on ACP) and 766.9 mg kg−1 diet (based on MDA) in the spleen of juvenile Jian carp.