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Effect of short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on immunological status and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) reared at two temperatures

Guerreiro, Inês, Serra, Cláudia R., Enes, Paula, Couto, Ana, Salvador, Andreia, Costas, Benjamín, Oliva-Teles, Aires
Fish & shellfish immunology 2016 v.49 pp. 122-131
Sparus aurata, antibacterial properties, blood platelets, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, digestive enzymes, enzyme activity, erythrocytes, fish, fructooligosaccharides, hematology, hemoglobin, immunity, immunoglobulins, intestinal microorganisms, juveniles, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, nitric oxide, polymerase chain reaction, prebiotics, rearing, temperature
The effects of dietary short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) incorporation on hematology, fish immune status, gut microbiota composition, digestive enzymes activities, and gut morphology, was evaluated in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles reared at 18 °C and 25 °C. For that purpose, fish with 32 g were fed diets including 0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% scFOS during 8 weeks. Overall, scFOS had only minor effects on gilthead sea bream immune status. Lymphocytes decreased in fish fed the 0.1% scFOS diet. Fish fed the 0.5% scFOS diet presented increased nitric oxide (NO) production, while total immunoglobulins (Ig) dropped in those fish, but only in the ones reared at 25 °C. Red blood cells, hemoglobin, bactericidal activity and NO were higher at 25 °C, whereas total white blood cells, circulating thrombocytes, monocytes and neutrophils were higher at 18 °C. In fish fed scFOS, lymphocytes were higher at 18 °C. Total Ig were also higher at 18 °C but only in fish fed 0.1% and 0.5% scFOS diets. No differences in gut bacterial profiles were detected by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) between dietary treatments. However, group's similarity was higher at 25 °C. Digestive enzymes activities were higher at 25 °C but were unaffected by prebiotics incorporation. Gut morphology was also unaffected by dietary prebiotic incorporation.Overall, gut microbiota composition, digestive enzymes activities and immunity parameters were affected by rearing temperature whereas dietary scFOS incorporation had only minor effects on these parameters. In conclusion, at the tested levels scFOS does not seem worthy of including it in gilthead sea bream juveniles diets.