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Thiamin deficiency induces impaired fish gill immune responses, tight junction protein expression and antioxidant capacity: Roles of the NF-κB, TOR, p38 MAPK and Nrf2 signaling molecules
- Wen, Ling-Mei, Feng, Lin, Jiang, Wei-Dan, Liu, Yang, Wu, Pei, Zhao, Juan, Jiang, Jun, Kuang, Sheng-Yao, Tang, Ling, Tang, Wu-Neng, Zhang, Yong-An, Zhou, Xiao-Qiu
- Fish & shellfish immunology 2016 v.51 pp. 373-383
- Ctenopharyngodon idella, immunosuppression, reactive oxygen species, fish, transforming growth factor beta 2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, thiamin, malondialdehyde, glutathione transferase, tight junctions, gene expression, tissues, interleukin-8, IKappaB kinase, hepcidin, transcription factor NF-kappa B, messenger RNA, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, immune response, antioxidant activity, interleukin-1beta, lysozyme, diet, protein synthesis, acid phosphatase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, myosin, gills, occludins
- In this study, we investigate the effects of dietary thiamin deficiency on immune responses, tight junctions, antioxidant capacity and related signaling molecules in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets that contained 0.12–2.04 mg thiamin kg−1 for 8 weeks. We found that dietary thiamin deficiency resulted in reduced complement 3 content, lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, mRNA levels of hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptides 2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-10, inhibitor protein-κBα (IκBα), ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 and target of rapamycin (TOR) and increased expression of interferon-γ2, tumor necrosis factor-α, TGF-β2, IL-1β, IL-8, IκB kinases (IKKβ and IKKγ) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65). Our findings showed that thiamin deficiency reduced the immune status of fish gills. Furthermore, thiamin deficiency resulted in reduced mRNA transcript levels of claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and occludin and increased mRNA transcript levels of claudin 15a, myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in fish gill tissues. These data suggested that thiamin deficiency disrupted tight junction-mediated fish gill barrier function. Additionally, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and both the activities and expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferases and glutathione reductase, as well as NF-E2-related factor 2 gene expression in fish gills, were lower in fish fed a thiamin-deficient diet. By contrast, thiamin deficiency increased levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b mRNA transcript expression in fish gills. Taken together, our findings indicated that thiamin deficiency impaired fish gill health by effects on the expression of genes encoding cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, MLCK and Nrf2.