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Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
- Litman, Jessica R., Griswold, Terry, Danforth, Bryan N.
- Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2016 v.100 pp. 183-198
- Megachilidae, data collection, females, genes, monophyly, nesting, new combination, paraphyly, solitary bees
- The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model-based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (five nuclear genes, 5081 base pairs), as well as a combined analysis using our molecular dataset in conjunction with a previously published morphological matrix. We discuss the evolution of nesting behavior in Anthidiini and the relationship between nesting material and female mandibular morphology. Following an examination of the morphological characters historically used to recognize anthidiine genera, we recommend the use of a molecular-based phylogenetic backbone to define taxonomic groups prior to the assignment of diagnostic morphological characters for these groups. Finally, our results reveal the paraphyly of numerous genera and have significant consequences for anthidiine classification. In order to promote a classification system based on stable, monophyletic clades, we hereby make the following changes to Michener’s (2007) classification: The subgenera Afranthidium (Zosteranthidium) Michener and Griswold, 1994, Afranthidium (Branthidium) Pasteels, 1969 and Afranthidium (Immanthidium) Pasteels, 1969 are moved into the genus Pseudoanthidium, thus forming the new combinations Pseudoanthidium (Zosteranthidium), Pseudoanthidium (Branthidium), and Pseudoanthidium (Immanthidium). The genus Neanthidium Pasteels, 1969 is also moved into the genus Pseudoanthidium, thus forming the new combination Pseudoanthidium (Neanthidium).Based on morphological characters shared with our new definition of the genus Pseudoanthidium, the subgenus Afranthidium (Mesanthidiellum) Pasteels, 1969 and the genus Gnathanthidium Pasteels, 1969 are also moved into the genus Pseudoanthidium, thus forming the new combinations Pseudoanthidium (Mesanthidiellum) and Pseudoanthidium (Gnathanthidium).