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Phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiency in response to potato genotype and phosphorus availability
- Sandaña, Patricio
- European journal of agronomy 2016 v.76 pp. 95-106
- correlation, cultivars, plant breeding, Andisols, fertilizer rates, production technology, Solanum tuberosum, phosphorus, tubers, crop yield, potatoes, genotype, field experimentation, genetic variation, crop management, biomass, Chile
- Increased phosphorus (P) use efficiency (PUE) of potato production systems through P uptake and P utilization efficiency (PUPE and PUTE, respectively) is one of the main challenges for potato breeding and crop management programs. The aim of this study was to assess PUE, PUPE, PUTE and related traits in different potato genotypes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in response to P availability. Three field experiments were carried out in southern Chile in Andisol soils. In each experiment treatments were the factorial combination of (i) 22 genotypes of potatoes and (ii) two P fertilization rates (0 and 130kgPha−1, −P and +P, respectively). On average, biomass, P concentrations and P uptakes were reduced (P<0.05) 32, 13 and 41% by −P, respectively. Conversely, −P increased PUTE (1.2-fold), PUPE (7-fold) and consequently PUE (8.3-fold). All traits were consistently affected (P<0.01) by genotype (G), and the coefficient of variation (up to 47%) for each trait reflects the genotypic variability under both +P and −P. In all experiments, PUE and its main components were affected (P<0.01) by P×G interaction. PUE was highly correlated with tuber yield, total biomass, P uptake and PUPE (P<0.01; r=0.74−0.99) but not to PUTE. In addition, PUPE was well correlated to yield and highly correlated with total P uptake (P<0.01; r=0.94–0.99). By contrast, PUTE was strongly negatively correlated (P<0.01; r=−0.85−0.89) with P concentration in tubers. Genotypes from native (1 and 4), national cultivar (Puren-INIA, Yagana-INIA and Patagonia-INIA) and advanced line (R 89063 and RD 36–35) groups were among the best regarding PUE under −P. The PUPE was found to be more important than PUTE in determining PUE across a broad range of genotypes. Moreover, there is important genotypic variability in these traits with the potential to be used to improve PUE in potato crops through breeding and crop management programs.