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Combined effect of aminoacids and microbial transglutaminase on gelation of low salt surimi content under high pressure processing

Cando, D., Borderías, A.J., Moreno, H.M.
Innovative food science & emerging technologies 2016 v.36 pp. 10-17
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, additives, cystine, gelation, gels, high pressure treatment, lysine, mechanical properties, myofibrillar proteins, myosin heavy chains, physicochemical properties, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein unfolding, protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase, rheometry, shelf life, sodium chloride, solubilization, surimi, water binding capacity
The paper examines the effect of High Pressure Processing (HPP) (300MPa), the incorporation of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and the addition of different additives such as lysine and cystine, as potential enhancers of low-salt (0.3%) surimi gel. Effects on myosin as the molecule responsible for gelation was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), and dynamic rheometry measurements. The effects on physicochemical properties of surimi gels were determined by Folding and Puncture tests and water holding capacity.Results indicated an increase in β-sheet when HPP was applied or additives added (cystine and lysine), especially when samples are treated with MTGase. Protein aggregation due to HPP and the additives resulted in lower myosin heavy chain (MHC) band density in the SDS–PAGE. Rheometry measurements indicated that MTGase activity was prompted by the incorporation of cystine and lysine in the absence of HPP. Also, HPP assisted gelation, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the gels. Samples containing additives, with or without HPP, exhibited the highest Folding test scores, indicating greater network flexibility. Lastly, water binding capacity was also enhanced by both additives and HPP.The industrial relevance of the present work is focused on the appropriated gelation of myofibrillar proteins which is an essential step in the elaboration of surimi-based products. Sodium chloride has an important role in that fact inducing protein unfolding and solubilization. The reduction in NaCl content, following the NAOS strategy, required the application of different technologies to facilitate surimi adequate gelation. High-pressure processing has been commonly used as an innovative technology to prolong shelf life but it can be successfully used to induce proteins gelation. Due to that ability, the use of high pressure on surimi-based products result an interesting tool to facilitate surimi gelation. The use of Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) alone or in combination with some aminoacids such as lysine and cystine can significantly improve surimi gelation added in a very small proportion.