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A murmur in the trees to note: Urban legacy effects on fruit trees in Berlin, Germany

Larondelle, Neele, Strohbach, Michael W
Urban forestry & urban greening 2016 v.17 pp. 11-15
Internet, foraging, forests, fruit trees, land use, politics, surveys, Germany
This study aims to unveil historic legacy effects in the urban forest of the formerly divided city of Berlin, Germany. A tree survey based on a stratified random sampling approach across five land-use classes was analyzed in respect of fruit tree density in the former East and West. In order to consolidate the findings, data from a foraging website ( were analyzed in the same regard. Results show that more fruit trees can be found in East Berlin than in West Berlin. We attribute these findings to legacy effects of the separation of the city in the Cold War, when two different political, social and cultural systems of the 20th century led to different demands concerning fruit trees. Even though the city was reunited 25 years ago, today's ability to forage for fruit in Berlin is still influenced by legacy effects going back to the former division of the city.