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Energy and macronutrient content of familiar beverages interact with pre-meal intervals to determine later food intake, appetite and glycemic response in young adults

Panahi, Shirin, Luhovyy, Bohdan L., Liu, Ting Ting, Akhavan, Tina, El Khoury, Dalia, Goff, H. Douglas, Harvey Anderson, G.
Appetite 2013 v.60 pp. 154-161
appetite, beverages, blood glucose, chocolate milk, energy content, energy intake, food intake, glycemic control, infant formulas, milk, milk chocolate, orange juice, pizza, protein composition, young adults
The objective was to compare the effects of pre-meal consumption of familiar beverages on appetite, food intake, and glycemic response in healthy young adults. Two short-term experiments compared the effect of consumption at 30 (experiment 1) or 120min (experiment 2) before a pizza meal of isovolumetric amounts (500mL) of water (0kcal), soy beverage (200kcal), 2% milk (260kcal), 1% chocolate milk (340kcal), orange juice (229kcal) and cow’s milk-based infant formula (368kcal) on food intake and subjective appetite and blood glucose before and after a meal. Pre-meal ingestion of chocolate milk and infant formula reduced food intake compared to water at 30min, however, beverage type did not affect food intake at 2h. Pre-meal blood glucose was higher after chocolate milk than other caloric beverages from 0 to 30min (experiment 1), and after chocolate milk and orange juice from 0 to 120min (experiment 2). Only milk reduced post-meal blood glucose in both experiments, suggesting that its effects were independent of meal-time energy intake. Combined pre- and post-meal blood glucose was lower after milk compared to chocolate milk and orange juice, but did not differ from other beverages. Thus, beverage calorie content and inter-meal intervals are primary determinants of food intake in the short-term, but macronutrient composition, especially protein content and composition, may play the greater role in glycemic control.