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Silver Nanoparticles and Growth Factors Incorporated Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Metallic Implant Surfaces for Enhancement of Osteoinductivity and Antibacterial Properties

Xie, Chao-Ming, Lu, Xiong, Wang, Ke-Feng, Meng, Fan-Zhi, Jiang, Ou, Zhang, Hong-Ping, Zhi, Wei, Fang, Li-Ming
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014 v.6 no.11 pp. 8580-8589
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, antibacterial properties, antibiotics, biocompatibility, bone formation, bone marrow, chitosan, coatings, electrochemistry, electrostatic interactions, femur, growth factors, heparin, hydroxyapatite, ions, nanosilver, osteoblasts, rabbits, silver, stromal cells, toxicity
Research on incorporation of both growth factors and silver (Ag) into hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metallic implant surfaces for enhancing osteoinductivity and antibacterial properties is a challenging work. Generally, Ag nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate and lead to a large increase in local Ag concentration, which could potentially affect cell activity. On the other hand, growth factors immobilization requires mild processing conditions so as to maintain their activities. In this study, bone morphology protein-2 (BMP-2) and Ag nanoparticle contained HA coatings were prepared on Ti surfaces by combining electrochemical deposition (ED) of Ag and electrostatic immobilization of BMP-2. During the ED process, chitosan (CS) was selected as the stabilizing agent to chelate Ag ions and generate Ag nanoparticles that are uniformly distributed in the coatings. CS also reduces Ag toxicity while retaining its antibacterial activity. Afterwards, a BMP/heparin solution was absorbed on the CS/Ag/HA coatings. Consequently, BMP-2 was immobilized on the coatings by the electrostatic attraction between CS, heparin, and BMP-2. Sustained release of BMP-2 and Ag ions from HA coatings was successfully demonstrated for a long period. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the CS/Ag/HA coatings have high antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Osteoblasts (OB) culture reveals that the CS/Ag/HA coatings exhibit good biocompatibility. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) culture indicates that the BMP/CS/Ag/HA coatings have good osteoinductivity and promote the differentiation of BMSCs. Ti bars with BMP/CS/Ag/HA coatings were implanted into the femur of rabbits to evaluate the osteoinductivity of the coatings. Results indicate that BMP/CS/Ag/HA coatings favor bone formation in vivo. In summary, this study presents a convenient and effective method for the incorporation of growth factors and antibacterial agents into HA coatings. This method can be utilized to modify a variety of metallic implant surfaces.