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Visualization of Zn2+ Ions in Live Zebrafish Using a Luminescent Iridium(III) Chemosensor

Ma, Dik-Lung, He, Hong-Zhang, Zhong, Hai-Jing, Lin, Sheng, Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin, Wang, Liang, Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen, Leung, Chung-Hang, Wong, Chun-Yuen
ACS applied materials 2014 v.6 no.16 pp. 14008-14015
Danio rerio, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, color, copper, electron transfer, ions, iridium, iron, lead, ligands, luminescence, magnesium, manganese, mercury, metal ions, nickel, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, potassium, silver, sodium, titration, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, zinc
A novel luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex-based chemosensor (1) bearing a zinc-specific receptor, tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and the 3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole ligand has been designed and synthesized. Upon the addition of Zn²⁺ ions to a solution of iridium(III) complex 1, a pronounced luminescence color change from blue to green can be observed, which may be attributed to the suppression of photoinduced electron transfer upon complexation of complex 1 with Zn²⁺ ions. The interaction of iridium(III) complex 1 with Zn²⁺ ions was investigated by UV–vis absorption titration, emission titration, and ¹H NMR titration. Furthermore, the iridium(III) complex 1 exhibited good selectivity for Zn²⁺ over 13 other common metal ions, including K⁺, Ag⁺, Na⁺, Ni²⁺, Fe³⁺, Hg²⁺, Cd²⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Cu²⁺, Mn²⁺, Co²⁺, and Pb²⁺ ions. The practical application of the iridium(III) complex 1 in visualizing intracellular Zn²⁺ distribution in live zebrafish was also demonstrated.