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Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex

Gray, Jeremy S., Kahl, Olaf, Lane, Robert S., Levin, Michael L., Tsao, Jean I.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases 2016 v.7 no.5 pp. 992-1003
Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, climate change, diapause, humans, pathogens, tick-borne encephalitis, ticks
Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely to encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers.