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Long-term phosphorus accumulation and agronomic and environmtal critical phosphorus levels in Haplic Luvisol soil, northern China

XI, Bin, ZHAI, Li-mei, LIU, Jian, LIU, Shen, WANG, Hong-yuan, LUO, Chun-yan, REN, Tian-zhi, LIU, Hong-bin
Journal of integrative agriculture 2016 v.15 no.1 pp. 200-208
Luvisols, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, corn, corn straw, eutrophication, fertilizer analysis, fertilizer application, field experimentation, grain yield, leaching, linear models, manure spreading, phosphorus, phosphorus fertilizers, pig manure, risk, surface water, wheat, China
Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) content is essential for achieving optimal crop yields, but accumulation of P in the soil due to excessive P applications can cause a risk of P loss and contribute to eutrophication of surface waters. Determination of a critical soil P value is fundamental for making appropriate P fertilization recommendations to ensure safety of both environment and crop production. In this study, agronomic and environmental critical P levels were determined by using linear-linear and linear-plateau models, and two segment linear model, for a maize (Zea mays L.)-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system based on a 22-yr field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol soil in northern China. This study included six treatments: control (unfertilized), no P (NoP), application of mineral P fertilizer (MinP), MinP plus return of maize straw (MinP+StrP), MinP plus low rate of farmyard swine manure (MinP+L.Man) and MinP plus high rate of manure (MinP+ H.Man). Based on the two models, the mean agronomic critical levels of soil Olsen-P for optimal maize and wheat yields were 12.3 and 12.8 mg kg−1, respectively. The environmental critical P value as an indicator for P leaching was 30.6 mg Olsen-P kg−1, which was 2.4 times higher than the agronomic critical P value (on average 12.5 mg P kg−1). It was calculated that soil Olsen-P content would reach the environmental critical P value in 41 years in the MinP treatment, but in only 5–6 years in the two manure treatments. Application of manure could significantly raise soil Olsen-P content and cause an obvious risk of P leaching. In conclusion, the threshold range of soil Olsen-P is from 12.5 to 30.6 mg P kg−1 to optimize crop yields and meanwhile maintain relatively low risk of P leaching in Haplic Luvisol soil, northern China.