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Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management

Zahedi, Alireza, Paparini, Andrea, Jian, Fuchun, Robertson, Ian, Ryan, Una
International journal for parasitology 2016 v.5 no.1 pp. 88-109
Cryptosporidium, anthropogenic activities, captive animals, drinking water, ecosystems, epidemiology, humans, industry, livestock, parasites, pathogens, public health, surface water, water management, water reservoirs, watersheds, wildlife, zoonoses
Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal–oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.