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Population genetic analysis of Anisakis simplex s.l. and Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda, Anisakidae) from parapatric areas and their contact zone
- Abattouy, N., Valero, A., Lozano, J., Barón, S.D., Romero, C., Martín-Sánchez, J.
- Parasite epidemiology and control 2016 v.1 no.2 pp. 169-176
- Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex, backcrossing, coasts, digestion, epidemiology, genes, genetic analysis, genetic markers, genetic variation, genotype, hybrids, internal transcribed spacers, larvae, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA, parasites, restriction endonucleases, ribosomal DNA, sympatry, Atlantic Ocean
- Genetic markers (ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA) were used for molecular dissection of the Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s.l). complex populations. Host fish were caught off Moroccan coasts, where only Anisakis pegreffii is present, the sympatric area comprising Spanish coasts, and the Little Sole Bank fishing area from Nordeast Atlantic Ocean where the only present species is A. simplex sensu stricto(s.s.). Sequence variations in the amplification products were then assessed indirectly by digestion with restriction endonucleases or directly by sequencing for 623 L3 larvae. The sequences were used to infer the relationships between the two species under study using various methodological approaches. We reveal the high genetic diversity of Anisakis simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii in both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. We detected 10 and 2 fixed differences between A. simplex s.s and A. pegreffii in the Cox2 and ITS1, respectively. We found a proportion of putative hybrids below 20% with similar figures on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Moroccan hybrids were more similar to A. pegreffii reflecting backcrosses between these mixed genotypes and his ancestor A. pegreffii. We discuss the possible interpretation of these putative hybrids.