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Pathotyping of Salmonella enterica by analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cyaA and flanking 23S ribosomal sequences

Morales, Cesar A., Musgrove, Michael, Humphrey, T.J., Cates, Carolyn, Gast, Richard, Guard-Bouldin, J.
Environmental microbiology 2007 v.9 no.4 pp. 1047-1059
DNA fingerprinting, Salmonella enterica, adenosine triphosphate, adenylate cyclase, discriminant analysis, eggs, genes, genetic drift, phenotype, phylogeny, proteins, serine, serotypes, single nucleotide polymorphism
The egg-contaminating phenotype of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was linked to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in cyaA, which encodes adenylate cyclase that produces cAMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. Ribotyping indicated that SNPs in cyaA were linked to polymorphisms occurring in the rrlC and rrlA 23S ribosomal subunits. Phylogenetic analysis of cyaA discriminated between Salmonella enterica serotypes and within serotype Enteritidis. Serotypes Typhimurium, Heidelberg and Enteritidis produced one, three and six cyaA allelic variants, respectively, among the set of 56 isolates examined. Asparagine₇₀₂ of CyaA was converted to serine in a biofilm-producing isolate. Statistical analysis was applied to 42 other genes encoding proteins between 800 and 1000 amino acids (aa). Results show that the 848 aa CyaA of serovar Enteritidis evolved by nucleotide substitutions that did not significantly alter the purine-to-pyrimidine nucleotide substitution ratio, which was a characteristic of large genes that was positively correlated with increasing gene size. In summary, these analyses link SNPs occurring in the rrlC-rrlA genomic fragment of S. enterica to genetic drift within S. Enteritidis that is associated with egg contamination.