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Effect of mechanical activation on structure changes and reactivity in further chemical modification of lignin

Zhao, Xiaohong, Zhang, Yanjuan, Hu, Huayu, Huang, Zuqiang, Yang, Mei, Chen, Dong, Huang, Kai, Huang, Aimin, Qin, Xingzhen, Feng, Zhenfei
International journal of biological macromolecules 2016 v.91 pp. 1081-1089
chemical analysis, chemical structure, esterification, lignin, mass transfer, mixing, particle size, scanning electron microscopy, spectrometers, surface area, surface roughness
Lignin was treated by mechanical activation (MA) in a customized stirring ball mill, and the structure and reactivity in further esterification were studied. The chemical structure and morphology of MA-treated lignin and the esterified products were analyzed by chemical analysis combined with UV/vis spectrometer, FTIR,NMR, SEM and particle size analyzer. The results showed that MA contributed to the increase of aliphatic hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups but the decrease of methoxyl groups. Moreover, MA led to the decrease of particle size and the increase of specific surface area and roughness of surface in lignin. The reactivity of lignin was enhanced significantly for the increase of hydroxyl content and the improvement of mass transfer in chemical reaction caused by the changes of molecular structure and morphological structure. The process of MA is green and simple, and is an effective method for enhancing the reactivity of lignin.