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Reduced Graphene Oxide/Amaranth Extract/AuNPs Composite Hydrogel on Tumor Cells as Integrated Platform for Localized and Multiple Synergistic Therapy

Chang, Guanru, Wang, Yunlong, Gong, Baoyou, Xiao, Yazhong, Chen, Yan, Wang, Shaohua, Li, Shikuo, Huang, Fangzhi, Shen, Yuhua, Xie, Anjian
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015 v.7 no.21 pp. 11246-11256
adverse effects, antineoplastic activity, biocompatibility, chlorophyll, cross-linking reagents, cytotoxicity, drugs, graphene oxide, hydrogels, hydrophilicity, irradiation, nanogold, neoplasm cells, photochemotherapy, reducing agents, singlet oxygen, temperature
Integration of multimodal treatment strategies combined with localized therapy to enhance antitumor efficacy and reduce side effects is still a challenge. Herein, a novel composite hydrogel containing rGO, amaranth extract (AE) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared by using AE as both reductant and cross-linking agent. The chlorophyll derivatives in AE were also employed as a photodynamic therapy drug. Meanwhile, AuNPs and rGO both have obvious photothermal effects and can accelerate the generation of cytotoxic singlet oxygen (¹O₂). The temperature increase of rGO/AE/AuNPs precursor is up to 6.3 °C under 808 nm laser irradiation at a power density of 200 mW·cm–². The hydrogel shell on in situ tumor cells was easily formed and regulated by near-infrared irradiation within 10 min, which could both retain a high concentration of drugs on the lesion site and prevent them from migrating to normal tissue, thus reducing the side effects. Compared with rGO/AE and AE, rGO/AE/AuNPs showed a remarkably improved and synergistic antitumor effect. The hydrogel possesses good biocompatibility and high hydrophilicity and could be used for loading chemotherapeutics, which provides a new approach for located and multiple antitumor therapies.