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Tuning Surface Charge and Morphology for the Efficient Detection of Dopamine under the Interferences of Uric Acid, Ascorbic Acid, and Protein Adsorption

Chen, Chien-Hsun, Luo, Shyh-Chyang
ACS applied materials 2015 v.7 no.39 pp. 21931-21938
adsorption, ascorbic acid, bovine serum albumin, buffers, detection limit, dopamine, electrochemistry, electrodes, electrostatic interactions, fibrinogen, gold, isoelectric point, lysozyme, nanomaterials, uric acid, zwitterions
In this research, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the surface charges and morphologies of electrodes on electrochemically detecting dopamine (DA) in the presence of protein adsorption, uric acid (UA), and ascorbic acid (AA). Through the electropolymerization of functionalized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes (EDOT) directly on Au electrodes, we successfully created PEDOT-coated electrodes with three different functional groups and nanostructures. Negatively charged carboxylic acid groups attracted DA while reducing the interferences of UA and AA due to electrostatic effect. We used charge-free tetra(ethylene glycol) and zwitterionic phosphocholine groups are used to evaluate the interference of protein adsorption on DA sensing because they both can effectively prevent the nonspecific adsorption of proteins. These two electrodes can avoid protein adsorption, yet proved ineffective for DA sensing: both tetra(ethylene glycol) and the phosphocholine groups are electroneutral and have minimal electrostatic interactions with DA. We also used three proteins of different isoelectric points - bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and fibrinogen - to evaluate the influence of protein adsorption on DA detection. We found that for an electrode coated with carboxylic acid-functionalized PEDOT, the adsorption of positively charged lysozyme can promote the detection sensitivity of AA and UA, and that all protein adsorption lowers the sensitivity of DA. In contrast, nanostructures promote the detection sensitivity of all three molecules. All of our tested functionalized PEDOT-coated electrodes demonstrated good stability and functionality in buffers.