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Environmentally Friendly Method: Development and Application to Carbon Aerogel as Sorbent for Solid-Phase Extraction

Dong, Sheying, Huang, Guiqi, Su, Meiling, Huang, Tinglin
ACS applied materials 2015 v.7 no.40 pp. 22256-22263
2,4-D, adsorption, benzyladenine, carbon, desorption, detection limit, equations, high performance liquid chromatography, kinetin, models, nitrogen, pH, plant growth substances, pollutants, salt concentration, scanning electron microscopy, solid phase extraction, sorbents, sorption isotherms, spectroscopy, statistical analysis, surface area, sustainable technology, transmission electron microscopy, uniconazole
We developed two simple, fast, and environmentally friendly methods using carbon aerogel (CA) and magnetic CA (mCA) materials as sorbents for micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) techniques. The material performances such as adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, and specific surface area were discussed by N₂ adsorption–desorption isotherm measurements, ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The experimental results proved that the heterogeneities of CA and mCA were well modeled with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption process well followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as kinetin (6-KT), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and uniconazole (UN) in a reservoir raw water sample were selected as the evaluation of applicability for the proposed μ-SPE and MSPE techniques using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental conditions of two methods such as the amount of sorbent, extraction time, pH, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were studied. Under the optimized conditions, two extraction methods provided high recoveries (89–103%), low the limits of detection (LODs) (0.01–0.2 μg L–¹), and satisfactory analytical features in terms of precision (relative standard deviation, RSD, 1.7–5.1%, n = 3). This work demonstrates the feasibility and the potential of CA and mCA materials as sorbents for μ-SPE and MSPE techniques. Besides, it also could serve as a basis for future development of other functional CAs in pretreatment technology and make them valuable for analysis of pollutants in environmental applications.