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Origin of Long-Term Storage Stability and Nitric Oxide Release Behavior of CarboSil Polymer Doped with S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-d-penicillamine

Wo, Yaqi, Li, Zi, Brisbois, Elizabeth J., Colletta, Alessandro, Wu, Jianfeng, Major, Terry C., Xi, Chuanwu, Bartlett, Robert H., Matzger, Adam J., Meyerhoff, Mark E.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015 v.7 no.40 pp. 22218-22227
Raman spectroscopy, Staphylococcus aureus, anti-infective agents, biocompatibility, biofilm, blood flow, catheters, cell viability, chemical elements, composite materials, cross infection, crosslinking, crystallization, evaporation, hydrogen bonding, leaching, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, medical equipment, nitric oxide, rabbits, rubber, silicone, solubility, solubilization, solvents, storage, storage quality, thermoplastics
The prolonged and localized delivery of nitric oxide (NO), a potent antithrombotic and antimicrobial agent, has many potential biomedical applications. In this work, the origin of the long-term storage stability and sustained NO release mechanism of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d-penicillamine (SNAP)-doped CarboSil 20 80A polymer, a biomedical thermoplastic silicone-polycarbonate-urethane, is explored. Long-term (22 days) localized NO release is achieved by utilizing a cross-linked silicone rubber as topcoats, which can greatly reduce the amount of SNAP, NAP, and NAP disulfide leaching from the SNAP-doped CarboSil films, as measured by LC–MS. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction characterization of SNAP-doped CarboSil films demonstrate that a polymer–crystal composite is formed during the solvent evaporation process when SNAP exceeds its solubility in CarboSil (ca. 3.4–4.0 wt %). Further, when exceeding this solubility threshold, SNAP exists in an orthorhombic crystal form within the bulk of the polymer. The proposed mechanism of sustained NO release in SNAP-doped CarboSil is that the solubilized SNAP in the polymer matrix decomposes and releases NO, primarily in the water-rich regions near the polymer/solution interface, and the dissolved SNAP in the bulk polymeric phase becomes unsaturated, resulting in the dissolution of crystalline SNAP within the bulk of the polymer. This is a very slow process that ultimately leads to NO release at the physiological flux levels for >3 weeks. The increased stability of SNAP within CarboSil is attributed to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the SNAP molecules that crystallize. This crystallization also plays a key role in maintaining RSNO stability within the CarboSil polymer for >8 months at 37 °C (88.5% remains). Further, intravascular catheters fabricated with this new material are demonstrated to significantly decrease the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm (a leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections) (in vitro) over a 7 day period, with 5 log units reduction of viable cell count on catheter surfaces. It is also shown that the NO release catheters can greatly reduce thrombus formation on the catheter surfaces during 7 h implantation in rabbit veins, when compared to the control catheters fabricated without SNAP. These results suggest that the SNAP-doped CarboSil system is a very attractive new composite material for creating long-term NO release medical devices with increased stability and biocompatibility.