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Effects of quinoa hull meal on piglet performance and intestinal epithelial physiology

Carlson, D., Fernandez, J. A., Poulsen, H. D., Nielsen, B., Jacobsen, S.‐E.
Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2012 v.96 no.2 pp. 198-205
absorption, animal performance, diet, epithelium, feed additives, feed intake, glucose, hulls, in vivo studies, permeability, piglets, secretion
Saponin‐containing feed additives have shown positive effects on pig performance. Quinoa hull has high saponin content and may be of interest as a feed additive. This study aimed to evaluate quinoa hull meal (QHM) as a feed additive in a pig diet. The effects of QHM were assessed for three dosages of South American (SA) origin (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg) and one dosage of Danish (DK) quinoa (300 mg/kg). In addition, the effect of dietary SA‐QHM and SA‐QHM‐extract on jejunal epithelial physiology was studied ex vivo in Ussing chambers. The experiment included 400 piglets weaned at 28 ± 2 days of age and the experimental period was 4 weeks. Piglets were weighed initially and finally and feed intake registered. The ex vivo studies were performed with epithelium from 40 pigs receiving control or SA‐QHM. Epithelium from each pig was placed into eight Ussing chambers, where four concentrations of SA‐QHM‐extract were added. Epithelial permeability, Na+‐dependent glucose transport and serotonin (5‐HT) and theophylline‐induced secretion were measured. The results showed that QHM had no influence on piglet’s growth (p = 0.41) or feed intake (p = 0.17). In spite of a large difference in saponin content between SA‐QHM and DK‐QHM (28.7% and 2.0% w/w respectively) the source did not affect pig performance. The ex vivo studies revealed no effect (p > 0.05) of adding QHM‐extract into the medium. The permeability and glucose induced absorption were highest (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 respectively) in epithelium from pigs that consumed 100 or 300 mg/kg SA‐QHM. The secretory response to 5‐HT was not affected (p = 0.59) by dietary treatments, but the theophylline‐induced secretion decreased (p = 0.02) with increasing dietary SA‐QHM. The changes in epithelial physiology measured ex vivo did not affect animal performance in vivo in this study.