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Development of a Graphene Oxide Nanocarrier for Dual-Drug Chemo-phototherapy to Overcome Drug Resistance in Cancer

Tran, Tuan Hiep, Nguyen, Hanh Thuy, Pham, Tung Thanh, Choi, Ju Yeon, Choi, Han-Gon, Yong, Chul Soon, Kim, Jong Oh
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015 v.7 no.51 pp. 28647-28655
apoptosis, breast neoplasms, cell nucleus, cytotoxicity, doxorubicin, drug resistance, drug therapy, graphene oxide, heat, irradiation, nanocarriers, neoplasm cells, proteins, synergism
Despite tremendous progress in chemotherapy, drug resistance remains a major challenge for anticancer treatment. The combinations of chemo-photothermal and chemo-chemo treatments have been reported to be potential solutions to overcome drug resistance. In this study, we developed a dual-in-dual synergistic therapy based on the use of dual anticancer drug-loaded graphene oxide (GO) stabilized with poloxamer 188 for generating heat and delivering drugs to kill cancer cells under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. The nanocomparable system is stable and uniform in size, generating sufficient heat to induce cell death. Dual drugs (doxorubicin and irinotecan)-loaded GO (GO-DI) in combination with laser irradiation caused higher cytotoxicity than that caused by the administration of a free single drug as well as a combination of drugs and blank GO in various cancer cells, especially in MDA-MB-231 resistant breast cancer cells. Exposure to “hot” NIR and GO-DI activated the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which was confirmed based on changes in the morphology of cell nuclei and overexpression of apoptosis-related proteins. On the basis of the results, the combined treatment showed a synergistic effect compared to the effect of chemotherapy or photothermal treatment alone, demonstrating higher therapeutic efficacy to overcome one of the most severe problem in anticancer therapy, that of intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutics.