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Biocompatible, Biodegradable, and Electroactive Polyurethane-Urea Elastomers with Tunable Hydrophilicity for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering

Chen, Jing, Dong, Ruonan, Ge, Juan, Guo, Baolin, Ma, Peter X.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015 v.7 no.51 pp. 28273-28285
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, aniline, atomic force microscopy, biocompatible materials, biodegradability, chemical structure, composite polymers, cytotoxicity, differential scanning calorimetry, gel chromatography, gene expression, hydrophilicity, mice, modulus of elasticity, muscle development, myoblasts, myocardium, myotubes, nerve tissue, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, polylactic acid, polyurethanes, propionic acid, scanning electron microscopy, skeletal muscle, solubility, thermal properties, thermogravimetry, tissue engineering, tissue repair, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy
It remains a challenge to develop electroactive and elastic biomaterials to mimic the elasticity of soft tissue and to regulate the cell behavior during tissue regeneration. We designed and synthesized a series of novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane-urea (PUU) copolymers with elastomeric property by combining the properties of polyurethanes and conducting polymers. The electroactive PUU copolymers were synthesized from amine capped aniline trimer (ACAT), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), polylactide, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The electroactivity of the PUU copolymers were studied by UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Elasticity and Young’s modulus were tailored by the polylactide segment length and ACAT content. Hydrophilicity of the copolymer films was tuned by changing DMPA content and doping of the copolymer. Cytotoxicity of the PUU copolymers was evaluated by mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts on copolymer films was also studied by analyzing the morphology of myotubes and relative gene expression during myogenic differentiation. The chemical structure, thermal properties, surface morphology, and processability of the PUU copolymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and solubility testing, respectively. Those biodegradable electroactive elastic PUU copolymers are promising materials for repair of soft tissues such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nerve.