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Multimodal Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles with Unusually Enhanced Specific Absorption Rate for Synergetic Cancer Therapeutics and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Thorat, Nanasaheb D., Bohara, Raghvendra A., Malgras, Victor, Tofail, Syed A. M., Ahamad, Tansir, Alshehri, Saad M., Wu, Kevin C.-W., Yamauchi, Yusuke
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2016 v.8 no.23 pp. 14656-14664
absorption, biocompatibility, cell death, coatings, drugs, erythrocytes, fever, hemolysis, humans, hydrophobicity, magnetic resonance imaging, nanoparticles, neoplasms, polyethylene glycol, therapeutics
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) cancer therapy frequently face trade off between a high magnetization saturation and their good colloidal stability, high specific absorption rate (SAR), and most importantly biological compatibility. This necessitates the development of new nanomaterials, as MFH and MRI are considered to be one of the most promising combined noninvasive treatments. In the present study, we investigated polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized La₁–ₓSrₓMnO₃ (LSMO) SPMNPs for efficient cancer hyperthermia therapy and MRI application. The superparamagnetic nanomaterial revealed excellent colloidal stability and biocompatibility. A high SAR of 390 W/g was observed due to higher colloidal stability leading to an increased Brownian and Neel’s spin relaxation. Cell viability of PEG capped nanoparticles is up to 80% on different cell lines tested rigorously using different methods. PEG coating provided excellent hemocompatibility to human red blood cells as PEG functionalized SPMNPs reduced hemolysis efficiently compared to its uncoated counterpart. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia of SPMNPs resulted in cancer cell death up to 80%. Additionally, improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the PEG capped La₁–ₓSrₓMnO₃ formulation in aqueous medium compared to the bare LSMO. Taken together, PEG capped SPMNPs can be useful for diagnosis, efficient magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and multimodal cancer treatment as the amphiphilicity of PEG can easily be utilized to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs.