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Enzyme-Catalyzed O2 Removal System for Electrochemical Analysis under Ambient Air: Application in an Amperometric Nitrate Biosensor
- Plumeré, Nicolas, Henig, Jörg, Campbell, Wilbur H.
- Analytical chemistry 2012 v.84 no.5 pp. 2141-2146
- air, anaerobic conditions, analytical chemistry, biosensors, catalase, catalysts, electrochemistry, galactose, glucose, glucose oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, nitrate reductase, nitrates, oxidation, oxygen
- Electroanalytical procedures are often subjected to oxygen interferences. However, achieving anaerobic conditions in field analytical chemistry is difficult. In this work, novel enzymatic systems were designed to maintain oxygen-free solutions in open, small volume electrochemical cells and implemented under field conditions. The oxygen removal system consists of an oxidase enzyme, an oxidase-specific substrate, and catalase for dismutation of hydrogen peroxide generated in the enzyme catalyzed oxygen removal reaction. Using cyclic voltammetry, three oxidase enzyme/substrate combinations with catalase were analyzed: glucose oxidase with glucose, galactose oxidase with galactose, and pyranose 2-oxidase with glucose. Each system completely removed oxygen for 1 h or more in unstirred open vessels. Reagents, catalysts, reaction intermediates, and products involved in the oxygen reduction reaction were not detected electrochemically. To evaluate the oxygen removal systems in a field sensing device, a model nitrate biosensor based on recombinant eukaryotic nitrate reductase was implemented in commercial screen-printed electrochemical cells with 200 μL volumes. The products of the aldohexose oxidation catalyzed by glucose oxidase and galactose oxidase deactivate nitrate reductase and must be quenched for biosensor applications. For general application, the optimum catalyst is pyranose 2-oxidase since the oxidation product does not interfere with the biorecognition element.