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A cytokine-like factor astakine accelerates the hemocyte production in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

Yiqun Li, Shuai Jiang, Meijia Li, Lusheng Xin, Lingling Wang, Hao Wang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Developmental and comparative immunology 2016 v.55 pp. 179-187
Crassostrea gigas, Vibrio anguillarum, amino acid sequences, amino acids, complementary DNA, crayfish, freshwater, gene expression, genes, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, messenger RNA, muscles, oysters, pathogens, polypeptides
Astakine has been reported to be a hematopoietic growth factor of prokineticin homolog firstly found in arthropods freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In the present study, an astakine homologous gene was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgAstakine). The full length cDNA of CgAstakine encoded a polypeptide of 103 amino acids containing a prokineticin (PK) domain homologous to that in astakine from freshwater crayfish P. leniusculus. The deduced amino acid sequence of CgAstakine shared higher similarity with those of other invertebrate astakines than prokineticins from vertebrates. The mRNA of CgAstakine was highly expressed in hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of oyster, while the CgAstakine protein was mainly distributed in hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes. The mRNA expression of CgAstakine in hemocytes was significantly increased (p < 0.01) and maintained at a high level from 3 h to 9 h after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. After the oyster hemocytes were incubated with 5 μg/mL recombinant CgAstakine protein (rCgAstakine) for 24 h in vitro, the proliferation of hemocytes was significantly increased to 1.89 fold of that in control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the total count of oyster hemocytes was significantly upregulated (2.45 fold of that in control group, p < 0.05) at 12 h after the oysters were received an injection of rCgAstakine (0.5 μg/g). These results collectively indicated that CgAstakine could modulate the hemocytes proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and probably involved in the hematopoietic process fighting against the invasion of foreign pathogens.