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Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Robbins, Katherine S., Greenspan, Phillip, Pegg, Ronald B.
Food chemistry 2016 v.212 pp. 681-687
Escherichia coli, anti-inflammatory activity, chronic diseases, dose response, high performance liquid chromatography, inflammation, lipopolysaccharides, macrophages, mice, nitric oxide, pecans, phenolic compounds, reactive oxygen species
Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect.