Main content area

Green Sample Preparation for Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis of Anionic and Cationic Analytes

Wuethrich, Alain, Haddad, Paul R., Quirino, Joselito P.
Analytical chemistry 2015 v.87 no.8 pp. 4117-4123
capillary electrophoresis, drinking water, electric field, electrolytes, glass, guidelines, herbicides, high performance liquid chromatography, hydrocolloids, river water, solid phase extraction, solvents
A sample preparation device for the simultaneous enrichment and separation of cationic and anionic analytes was designed and implemented in an eight-channel configuration. The device is based on the use of an electric field to transfer the analytes from a large volume of sample into small volumes of electrolyte that was suspended into two glass micropipettes using a conductive hydrogel. This simple, economical, fast, and green (no organic solvent required) sample preparation scheme was evaluated using cationic and anionic herbicides as test analytes in water. The analytical figures of merit and ecological aspects were evaluated against the state-of-the-art sample preparation, solid-phase extraction. A drastic reduction in both sample preparation time (94% faster) and resources (99% less consumables used) was observed. Finally, the technique in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis was applied to analysis of quaternary ammonium and phenoxypropionic acid herbicides in fortified river water as well as drinking water (at levels relevant to Australian guidelines). The presented sustainable sample preparation approach could easily be applied to other charged analytes or adopted by other laboratories.