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De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of osmoregulation in Litopenaeus vannamei under three cultivated conditions with different salinities

Zhang, Dan, Wang, Fang, Dong, Shuanglin, Lu, Yunliang
Gene 2016 v.578 no.2 pp. 185-193
Litopenaeus vannamei, brackish water, databases, energy metabolism, euryhaline species, freshwater, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, genomics, gills, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, osmoregulation, salinity, seawater, shrimp, signal transduction, transcription (genetics), transcriptomics
Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important euryhaline crustaceans, is cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater worldwide. We performed Illumina RNA sequencing of L. vannamei gills, generating 124,914,870; 119,250,450; and 105,487,350 raw reads from the shrimps cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater, respectively. From these reads, 466,293 transcripts were de novo assembled and annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 1752 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the freshwater group compared with the seawater group, including 1242 upregulated and 510 downregulated genes. In addition, 1246 genes were differentially expressed in the brackish group vs. the seawater water group, including 659 upregulated and 587 downregulated genes. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in energy metabolism, substance metabolism, ion transport and signal transduction, and genetic process. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to analyze the functional significance of the differentially expressed genes, included those responding to salinity through diverse biological functions and processes and numerous potential genes associated with the osmotic response. L. vannamei responses to the three cultivated salinities were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The transcriptional database established from the current research adds to the information available on L. vannamei and the findings expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of osmoregulation mechanisms in this species.