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Vitamin D deficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases insulin resistance by reducing PPAR-γ expression in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats

Park, Sunmin, Kim, Da Sol, Kang, Suna
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 2016 v.27 pp. 257-265
abdomen, adipocytes, animal disease models, antagonists, blood serum, energy expenditure, fatty-acid synthase, gene expression regulation, genes, glucose, glucose clamp technique, high fat diet, insulin, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, islets of Langerhans, lean body mass, legs, lipid metabolism, liver, messenger RNA, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, rats, skeletal muscle, triacylglycerols, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin status
Human studies have provided relatively strong associations of poor vitamin D status with Type 2 diabetes but do not explain the nature of the association. Here, we explored the physiological pathways that may explain how vitamin D status modulates energy, lipid and glucose metabolisms in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were fed high-fat diets containing 25 (VD-low), 1000 (VD-normal) or 10,000 (VD-high) cholecalciferol-IU/kg diet for 8 weeks. Energy expenditure, insulin resistance, insulin secretory capacity and lipid metabolism were measured. Serum 25-OH-D levels, an index of vitamin D status, increased dose dependently with dietary vitamin D. VD-low resulted in less fat oxidation without a significant difference in energy expenditure and less lean body mass in the abdomen and legs comparison to the VD-normal group. In comparison to VD-low, VD-normal had lower serum triglycerides and intracellular fat accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscles which was associated with down-regulation of the mRNA expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. In euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance was exacerbated in the VD-low group but not in the VD-normal group, possibly through decreasing hepatic insulin signaling and PPAR-γ expression in the adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes 1,25-(OH)2-D (10 nM) increased triglyceride accumulation by elevating PPAR-γ expression and treatment with a PPAR-γ antagonist blocked the triglyceride deposition induced by 1,25-(OH)2-D treatment. VD-low impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperglycemic clamp and decreased β-cell mass by decreasing β-cell proliferation. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency resulted in the dysregulation of glucose metabolism in GK rats by simultaneously increasing insulin resistance by decreasing adipose PPAR-γ expression and deteriorating β-cell function and mass.