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Single-step biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Zornia diphylla leaves: A potent eco-friendly tool against malaria and arbovirus vectors

Govindarajan, Marimuthu, Rajeswary, Mohan, Muthukumaran, Udaiyan, Hoti, S.L., Khater, Hanem F., Benelli, Giovanni
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2016 v.161 pp. 482-489
Aedes albopictus, Anopheles subpictus, Chironomus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Gambusia affinis, X-ray diffraction, Zika virus, Zornia, acute toxicity, adverse effects, arboviruses, bioaccumulation, biosynthesis, dengue, dose response, encephalitis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, filariasis, food chain, human health, insect vectors, insecticides, ions, larvae, larvicides, leaf extracts, leaves, lethal concentration 50, malaria, nanosilver, nontarget organisms, parasites, pathogens, scanning electron microscopy, silver, sustainable technology, toxic substances, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. The application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools of mosquito vectors are a priority. Here single-step fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap aqueous leaf extract of Zornia diphylla as reducing and capping agent pf Ag+ ions has been carried out. Biosynthesized AgNP were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of Z. diphylla leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the Z. diphylla leaf extract and Ag NP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 12.53, 13.42 and 14.61μg/ml, respectively. Biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Chironomus circumdatus, Anisops bouvieri and Gambusia affinis, with the respective LC50 values ranging from 613.11 to 6903.93μg/ml, if compared to target mosquitoes. Overall, our results highlight that Z. diphylla-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target organisms.