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Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles Part A Molecular & integrative physiology

Coutinho, F., Castro, C., Rufino-Palomares, E., Ordóñez-Grande, B., Gallardo, M.A., Oliva-Teles, A., Peres, H.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology 2016 v.191 pp. 9-17
Sparus aurata, absorption, alanine transaminase, amino acid metabolism, antioxidant activity, aspartate transaminase, body composition, catalase, dietary supplements, energy, fish, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-ammonia ligase, glutaminase, glutamine, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, intestinal absorption, intestines, juveniles, lipid peroxidation, lipids, liver, superoxide dismutase
A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.