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Structural and functional characterization of neuromedin S in the teleost fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio) Part B Biochemistry & molecular biology

Chen, Huapu, Huang, Hongxin, Chen, Xinggui, Deng, Siping, Zhu, Chunhua, Huang, Hai, Li, Guangli
Comparative biochemistry and physiology 2016 v.191 pp. 76-83
Danio rerio, amino acids, animal ovaries, complementary DNA, fish, food deprivation, gene expression, genes, hypothalamus, in situ hybridization, intraperitoneal injection, luteinizing hormone, messenger RNA, models, muscles, neuropeptide Y, nucleotide sequences, pituitary gland, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sequence alignment, spleen
Neuromedin S (NMS) has been demonstrated to have important roles in many vertebrate physiological processes. However, the function of NMS in teleost fishes remains unclear. We explored the physiological roles of the NMS gene in the zebrafish model. An NMS cDNA was cloned from zebrafish brain tissue, and the full-length cDNA sequence was 521 bp in length and encoded a precursor of 110 amino acid residues. Interestingly, fish prepro-NMS is predicted to generate a short 34-residue peptide, designated as NMS-related peptide (NMSRP). Zebrafish prepro-NMS does not contain the NMS peptide which is found in the NMS precursors of mammals, and just retains the MNSRP peptide. A multiple-species sequence alignment showed that NMSRPs are conserved among the other sampled vertebrates. Zebrafish NMS mRNA was detected by RT-PCR revealing a tissue-specific distribution with high levels of expression in the brain, spleen, ovary, pituitary, and muscle. Furthermore, the locations of NMS-expressing cells in the zebrafish brain were detected by in situ hybridization in the parvocellular preoptic nucleus (PPa), the ventral zone of the periventricular hypothalamus (Hv), and lateral hypothalamic nucleus (LH). The levels of NMS mRNA in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after three days of food deprivation. Administration of zebrafish NMSRP by intraperitoneal injection significantly promoted the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin, suggesting an orexigenic role for NMSRP in zebrafish. The present study offers a new understanding of the NMS gene in vertebrates and increases our knowledge of the neuroendocrine regulation of feeding.