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Amyloid-β-Secondary Structure Distribution in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Measured by an Immuno-Infrared-Sensor: A Biomarker Candidate for Alzheimer’s Disease

Nabers, Andreas, Ollesch, Julian, Schartner, Jonas, Kötting, Carsten, Genius, Just, Hafermann, Henning, Klafki, Hans, Gerwert, Klaus, Wiltfang, Jens
Analytical chemistry 2016 v.88 no.5 pp. 2755-2762
Alzheimer disease, biomarkers, blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, disease control, hematologic tests, patients, peptides
The misfolding of the Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide into β-sheet enriched conformations was proposed as an early event in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Here, the Aβ peptide secondary structure distribution in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma of 141 patients was measured with an immuno-infrared-sensor. The sensor detected the amide I band, which reflects the overall secondary structure distribution of all Aβ peptides extracted from the body fluid. We observed a significant downshift of the amide I band frequency of Aβ peptides in Dementia Alzheimer type (DAT) patients, which indicated an overall shift to β-sheet. The secondary structure distribution of all Aβ peptides provides a better marker for DAT detection than a single Aβ misfold or the concentration of a specific oligomer. The discrimination between DAT and disease control patients according to the amide I frequency was in excellent agreement with the clinical diagnosis (accuracy 90% for CSF and 84% for blood). The amide I band maximum above or below the decisive marker frequency appears as a novel spectral biomarker candidate of AD. Additionally, a preliminary proof-of-concept study indicated an amide I band shift below the marker band already in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. The presented immuno-IR-sensor method represents a promising, simple, robust, and label-free diagnostic tool for CSF and blood analysis.