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Metabolomics approach to explore the effects of Kai-Xin-San on Alzheimer’s disease using UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry B Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences

Chu, Hang, Zhang, Aihua, Han, Ying, Lu, Shengwen, Kong, Ling, Han, Jinwei, Liu, Zhidong, Sun, Hui, Wang, Xijun
Journal of chromatography 2016 v.1015-1016 pp. 50-61
Alzheimer disease, Hippocampus hippocampus, aluminum chloride, behavior disorders, biochemical pathways, biomarkers, cortex, elderly, galactose, hippocampus, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, intraperitoneal injection, ionization, mass spectrometry, memory, metabolites, metabolomics, models, neurodegenerative diseases, rats, staining, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, China
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that influences elderly populations, with no effective method for its treatment so far. To improve its diagnosis and treatment, changes of small molecule metabolite during AD should be elucidated. Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is an herbal formulae that has been widely used to treat mental disorders, especially amnesia and depression in China. Experimental AD was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of d-galactose (d-gal) and administered intragastrically with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) simultaneously for 105 days. Morris water maze task as a behavior test was used for testing the effects of KXS on AD model and pathological changes to the brain were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The levels of Bcl-2 and ChAT in hippocampus were evaluated by western-blot. Furthermore, metabolite profiling of AD was performed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of- flight-high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/HDMS) combined with pattern recognition approaches and pathway analysis. d-gal and AlCl3-treated caused a decline in spatial learning and memory, hippocampal histopathological abnormalities and increased Aβ1-40 levels in the brain cortex and hippocampus along with decreased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. KXS significantly improved the cognitive impairment induced by d-gal and AlCl3, attenuated hippocampal histopathological abnormalities, reduced Aβ1-40 levels and increased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. A total of 48 metabolites were considered as potential biomarkers of AD, and 36 metabolites may correlate with the regulation of KXS treatment on AD. Changes in AD metabolic profiling were close to normal states through regulating multiple perturbed pathways after KXS treatment. This study has revealed the potential biomarkers and metabolic networks of AD, illuminated the biochemistry mechanism of AD and the metabolic pathways influenced by KXS.