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Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition
- Manso, T., Gallardo, B., Salvá, A., Guerra-Rivas, C., Mantecón, A.R., Lavín, P., de la Fuente, M.A.
- Journal of dairy science 2016 v.99 no.2 pp. 1111-1120
- alpha-linolenic acid, antioxidants, branched chain fatty acids, ewes, experimental diets, fatty acid composition, forage, grape pomace, grapes, ingredients, linoleic acid, linseed oil, lipid content, milk, milk consumption, milk fatty acids, milk yield, phenolic compounds, rumen, total mixed rations, vitamin E, vitamin supplements, wine industry
- Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5g/100g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10g/100g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of rumen conversion of dietary unsaturated fatty acids.