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Biofilm Formation and Morphotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp.arizonae Differs from Those of Other Salmonella enterica Subspecies in Isolates from Poultry Houses

Lamas, A., Fernandez-No, I. C., Miranda, J. M., Vazquez, B., Cepeda, A., Franco, C. M.
Journal of food protection 2016 v.79 no.7 pp. 1127-1134
Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, biofilm, cellulose, environmental factors, food chain, foodborne illness, foods, genes, microorganisms, nutrient content, poultry housing, public health, serotypes, temperature
Salmonella serovars are responsible for foodborne diseases around the world. The ability to form biofilms allows microorganisms to survive in the environment. In this study, 73 Salmonella strains, belonging to four different subspecies, were isolated from poultry houses and foodstuffs and tested. Biofilm formation was measured at four different temperatures and two nutrient concentrations. Morphotypes and cellulose production were evaluated at three different temperatures. The presence of several genes related to biofilm production was also examined. All strains and subspecies of Salmonella had the ability to form biofilms, and 46.57% of strains produced biofilms under all conditions tested. Biofilm formation was strain dependent and varied according to the conditions. This is the first study to analyze biofilm formation in a wide number of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strains, and no direct relationship between the high prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strains and their ability to form biofilm was established. Morphotypes and cellulose production varied as the temperature changed, with 20°C being the optimum temperature for expression of the red, dry, and rough morphotype and cellulose. Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae, whose morphotype is poorly studied, only showed a smooth and white morphotype and lacked the csgD and gcpA genes that are implicated in biofilm production. Thus, Salmonella biofilm formation under different environmental conditions is a public health problem because it can survive and advance through the food chain to reach the consumer.