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Activated zeolite—suitable carriers for microorganisms in anaerobic digestion processes?
- Weiß, S., Lebuhn, M., Andrade, D., Zankel, A., Cardinale, M., Birner-Gruenberger, R., Somitsch, W., Ueberbacher, B. J., Guebitz, G. M.
- Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2013 v.97 no.7 pp. 3225-3238
- Clostridium, Methanoculleus, Pseudomonas, anaerobic digestion, beta-mannosidase, biodegradation, biogas, cell walls, cells, cellulose, combustion, confocal scanning laser microscopy, digestion, energy, enzyme activity, fermentation, hemicellulose, hydrolysis, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, microhabitats, microorganisms, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, population dynamics, proteins, proteolysis, ribosomal RNA, scanning electron microscopy, single-stranded conformational polymorphism, sugars, trace elements, xylanases, zeolites
- Plant cell wall structures represent a barrier in the biodegradation process to produce biogas for combustion and energy production. Consequently, approaches concerning a more efficient de-polymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars are required. Here, we show that natural activated zeolites (i.e. trace metal activated zeolites) represent eminently suitable mineral microhabitats and potential carriers for immobilisation of microorganisms responsible for anaerobic hydrolysis of biopolymers stabilising related bacterial and methanogenic communities. A strategy for comprehensive analysis of immobilised anaerobic populations was developed that includes the visualisation of biofilm formation via scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, community and fingerprint analysis as well as enzyme activity and identification analyses. Using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, hydrolytical active protein bands were traced by congo red staining. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy revealed cellulolytical endo- and exoglucanase (exocellobiohydrolase) as well as hemicellulolytical xylanase/mannase after proteolytic digestion. Relations to hydrolytic/fermentative zeolite colonisers were obtained by using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) based on amplification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA fragments. Thereby, dominant colonisers were affiliated to the genera Clostridium, Pseudomonas and Methanoculleus. The specific immobilisation on natural zeolites with functional microbes already colonising naturally during the fermentation offers a strategy to systematically supply the biogas formation process responsive to population dynamics and process requirements.